Malls History III/Istoria mall-urilor III

Architect american dream Northland Commercial Complex in Detroit opened in 1954, was “the work” a visionary in the field: Victor Gruen, sometimes called “the architect of the American dream.” Humorous speaking, Gruen was paradoxical extraordinary commercial complex project, though he disliked shopping! Not only that: the visionary encourage the expansion of cities, but also deplored the deterioration of cities. Victor Gruen (real name Victor Gruenbaum, 1903-1980), born in Vienna and came through încurcatele ways of life in New York in 1939, was an extremely ambitious man. Architect, writer and orator, even exceptional, career advanced rapidly, stressing that the gossips did this mainly by using the media to his advantage. From the outset, his ambition Urban went on a well-established idea: to create so-called “Shopping Town. And we talked about the fact that he does not like to go shopping, the idea did not involve commercialization, but rather, a better organization of commercial space. Gruen wanted more than the supermarket concept, really wanted a “city within a city.” Artificial Street An indoor mall had to have “Main Street” – “Main Street”. An artificial street who get new “conquest” of technology, such as air conditioning. The idea of urban life in the natural environment taking shape … Although in 1956 emerged in Edina (a suburb of Minneapolis) a commercial complex which is said “it will be a model for future commercial centers, Gruen was not impressed. Northland was not limited to, continued with Southdale, developing exuberant imagination and … a paradox if the cardinal points. Southdale was not great in theory was a building surrounded by parking lots. Only theoretically, the man Gruen architectural surprises. “Streets” of the mall were covered and had air conditioning. Inspiration has been formed a glass-covered gallery in Milan and Naples! While inside the mall sober had no Italian charm, Gruen had reached its goal – “covered streets” were searched in America, in places where the climate was changing. Thus, began to appear in the Midwest, north-east in the rainy northwest, south, south-west, especially in Southern California (where it’s hot), in short everywhere! Cardinal points were already “serving” of Gruen … Southdale has become a model. But the model of ‘access roads covered “meant additional investment for commercial complexes. Saving solution and also was the inspiration of all Southdale. Complexes constructed with two or three floors, shorter distances to travel for shoppers, more shopping “myself”. “Bucky” For 60 years, commercial complexes had ceased to be a suburban phenomenon. In 1960, the futurist R. Buckminster Fuller proposed building a giant arches, covering 50 buildings in Manhattan! His arguments were protecting the area from the weather and better air quality. Friends nicknamed “Bucky” R. Buckminster Fuller (1895-1983) was one of the key innovators of the twentieth century, was known as a philosopher, thinker, visionary, inventor, architect, engineer, mathematician, poet, cosmologist and even more (it was he who coined the term “Spaceship Earth”). Bucky’s idea of Manhattan was still ranked first as bizarre. But … his vision of urban life are conducted in an artificial environment had already been made by Gruen, with whom I have not finished yet … (To be continued) Arhitectul visului american Complexul comercial Northland din Detroit, deschis în 1954, reprezenta “opera” unui vi­zio­nar în domeniu: Victor Gruen, su­pra­numit şi “arhitectul visului ame­rican”. Umoristic vorbind, Gruen era paradoxal: proiecta complexe comerciale extraordinare, deşi îi displăceau cumpărăturile! Nu numai atât: vizionarul încuraja extinderea oraşelor, dar totodată deplângea deteriorarea oraşelor. Victor Gruen (pe numele adevărat Victor Gruenbaum; 1903-1980), născut la Viena şi ajuns prin încurcatele căi ale vieţii la New York în 1939, a fost un om ex­trem de ambiţios. Arhitect, scriitor şi chiar orator de excepţie, a avansat în carieră rapid, gurile rele subli­niind că a reuşit acest lucru mai ales prin utilizarea mass-media în avantajul său. Încă de la în­ceput, ambiţia sa urbană a mers pe o idee bine stabilită: să creeze aşa-numitul “Shopping Town”. Şi pentru că am vorbit despre faptul că nu îi plăcea să meargă la cump­ă­rături, ideea nu presupunea comercialul, ci, mai bine zis, o cât mai bună organizare a spaţiului comercial. Gruen voia mai mult decât conceptul de supermarket, voia de fapt un “oraş în oraş!”. Strada artificială Un mall trebuia să aibă în interior “strada principală” – “Main Street”. O stradă principală artificială, care ­b­e­ne­fi­­cia de noi “cuceriri” ale tehnicii, cum ar fi aerul con­di­ţionat. Ideea vieţii urbane în mediu artificial prindea contur… Deşi în 1956 apăruse la Edina (o suburbie a Minne­a­po­lisului) un complex comercial despre care se spunea că “va constitui un model al viitoarelor centre comerciale”, Gruen nu s-a lăsat impresionat. Nu s-a limitat la Northland, a continuat cu Southdale, imaginaţia sa debordantă dezvoltând parcă şi… un paradox al punctelor cardinale. Southdale nu era mare, teoretic era o clădire înconjurată de locuri de parcare. Numai teoretic, Gruen fiind omul surprizelor arhitecturale. “Străzile” mall-ului erau acoperite şi aveau aer condiţionat. Inspiraţia sa o constituiseră galeriile acoperite cu sticlă de la Milano şi Napoli! Deşi interiorul sobru al mall-ului nu avea nimic din farmecul italian, Gruen îşi atinsese scopul – “străzile acoperite” au devenit căutate în America, în locurile unde clima era schimbătoare. Astfel, au început să apară în vestul mijlociu, în nord-est, în nord-vestul ploios, în sud, în sud-vest, mai ales în sudul Ca­liforniei (unde este foarte cald), pe scurt peste tot! Deja punctele cardinale erau “în slujba” lui Gruen… Southdale a devenit un model. Însă modelul “căilor de acces acoperite” însemna pentru complexele comerciale investiţii suplimentare. Soluţia salvatoare şi inspiraţia totodată a constituit-o tot Southdale. Complexe construite cu două sau trei etaje, distanţe mai mici de parcurs pentru cumpărători, mai multe magazine “însumate”. “Bucky” Spre anii ’60, complexurile comerciale încetaseră să mai fie un fenomen suburban. În 1960, futuristul R. Buckminster Fuller propunea construirea unei bolte gigant, care să acopere 50 de clădiri din Manhattan! Argumentele lui erau protejarea zonei de intemperii şi o mai bună calitate a aerului. Poreclit de prieteni “Bucky”, R. Buckminster Fuller (1895-1983) a fost unul dintre inovatorii-cheie ai secolului al XX-lea, fiind cunoscut drept filosof, gânditor, vizionar, inventator, arhitect, inginer, matematician, poet, cosmolog şi chiar mai mult (el este cel care a inventat termenul “Spaceship Earth”). Ideea lui Bucky cu Manhattanul a fost clasată încă de la început drept bizară. Dar… Vi­ziunea lui cu privire la viaţa urbană care se desfăşoară într-un mediu artificial fusese deja realizată de Gruen, cu care încă nu am terminat… (Va urma)

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s