Malls History / Istoria mall-urilor II

Eighteenth century has meant the opening of the first “arcade” – construction precursor of today’s commercial galleries. First opened in the U.S., from Providence in 1828. In the eighteenth century no one anticipated such a development … commercial complex inventive concept. Eighteenth century meant opening “arches” – construction precursor of today’s commercial galleries. They were covered, all the shops having to turn one roof separately. The first course opened in the U.S., from Providence, in 1828, moving to department stores – department store. ” Only in 1921 was to open in London Burlington Arcade, but here in 1916 that Americans already had brought a new invention in the field: Lake View Store (Duluth, Minnesota), an important ancestor of today’s mall. The top floor had a balcony and then, on the ground floor shops have become accessible only from the outside. The building had three levels, one underground, where it was placed a shoe store. Downstairs was a general store and the first floor were “service areas” such as a bank office, a barber shop or pool hall. Offspring Built on cheap land on the outskirts of towns, were so-called “Farmers Markets” in California during the 30s, sometimes called “village shops.” The initiators of such complex – which was a kind of “behind” the small and medium-sized shopping centers in America ’20s – went on the idea of low prices. In addition, they thought that the number of cars that were growing was therefore constituted a “mass” of customers willing to move and especially shopping! These “villages” had a traditional architecture, perfectly integrated into the landscape, were placed at major intersections and provides buyers a large number of parking spaces behind them. Unfortunately, commercial complexes spread in America would be somewhat blocked by the period of the great financial crash of 1930, which arose primarily as a direct consequence of WWI. He followed the deadlock created by World War II. Professor KennethT. Jackson, author of “Crabgrass Frontier (1985; a history of suburbanization in America), notes that in 1946 there were only eight malls in the U.S.. Therefore, regional malls were to occur, the first of its kind being Northgate, built in 1950 on the outskirts of Seattle. A pedestrian-only street, along which there were small shops and department store. Extending this kind of complex took place in parallel with the expansion of suburbs. All while they were changing habits in respect Americans shopping. The basic attraction of being an advantage to shop in one place. Thus, the number of U.S. shopping centers would increase from about one percent in 1950 to nearly 4000, ten years later. Among the large number Northland (Detroit), built in 1954: 10,000 square meters, 7400 parking spaces, and around office buildings, apartments, research laboratories, a hospital and a hotel. (To be continued) Secolul al XVIII-lea a însemnat deschiderea primelor „ar­ca­de” – construcţii precursoare ale galeriilor comerciale de azi. Primele s-au deschis în SUA, la Providence, în 1828. În secolul al XVIII-lea nimeni nu anticipa o evoluţie atât de… inventivă a conceptului de complex comercial. Secolul al XVIII-lea a însemnat deschiderea „arcadelor” – construcţii precursoare ale galeriilor comerciale de azi. Acestea erau acoperite, toate ma­gazinele având la rândul lor câte un acoperiş separat. Primele s-au deschis bineînţeles în SUA, la Providence, în 1828, evoluând spre magazinele universale – „department store”. Abia în 1921 avea să se deschidă la Londra „Burlington Arcade”, dar iată că anul 1916 le adusese americanilor deja o nouă in­ven­ţie în domeniu: Lake View Store (Duluth, Minnesota), un strămoş important al mall-ului de azi. Ultimul etaj avea un balcon, iar ulterior, magazinele de la par­ter au devenit accesibile doar din exterior. Clădirea avea trei niveluri, dintre care unul în subteran, unde era amplasat un magazin de încălţăminte. La parter era un magazin general, iar la primul etaj se aflau „spaţii de servicii”, cum ar fi un oficiu bancar, o frizerie sau sală de biliard.   Urmaşele Construite pe terenuri ieftine, la marginea oraşelor,  erau aşa-numitele „Farmers Markets” din  Ca­lifornia anilor ’30, supranumite şi „sate de magazi­ne”. Iniţiatorii unor asemenea complexe – care erau un fel de „urmaşe” ale centrelor comerciale mici şi mijlocii din America anilor ’20 – au mers pe ideea de pre­ţuri scăzute. În plus, s-au gândit la faptul că nu­mărul celor care aveau automobile era în continuă creş­tere, prin urmare constituiau „o masă” de clienţi dor­nici de mişcare şi mai ales de cumpărături!  Aceste „sate” aveau o arhitectură tradiţională, se integrau perfect în peisaj, erau amplasate la intersecţii im­por­tante şi puneau la dispoziţia cumpărătorilor un nu­măr mare de locuri de parcare aflate în spatele lor.  Din păcate, răspândirea complexelor comerciale în America avea să fie oarecum blocată de perioada marelui crah financiar din anul 1930, care a apărut în primul rând ca o consecinţă directă a primului război mondial. A urmat şi blocajul creat de al doilea război mondial. Profesorul universitar KennethT. Jackson, autor al lucrării „Crabgrass Frontier (1985; o istorie a suburbanizării în America), notează că în 1946 existau doar opt complexe comerciale în SUA. Prin urmare, aveau să apară complexele comerciale regionale, primul de acest gen fiind Northgate, construit în 1950 la marginea oraşului Seattle. O stradă doar pentru pietoni, de-a lungul căreia se aflau magazine mici şi un magazin universal. Extinderea acestui gen de complexe a avut loc în paralel cu extinderea subur­biilor. Totul concomitent cu schimbarea obişnuinţelor pe care le aveau americanii în ceea ce priveşte cum­pă­răturile. Atracţia de bază constituind-o avantajul de a face cumpărăturile într-un singur loc. Astfel, numărul complexelor comerciale americane avea să crească de la aproximativ o sută în 1950, la aproape 4.000, zece ani mai târziu. Printre cele mai mari se număra Northland (Detroit), construit în 1954: 10.000 metri pătraţi, 7.400 locuri de parcare, şi în jurul lui clădiri de birouri, apar­tamente, laboratoare de cercetări, un spital şi un hotel. (Va urma)

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