Malls History/Istoria mall-urilor (I)

Not only the palaces may have a history. Here there are “palaces” of modern times that people visiting the same frenzy. For some a way of life, for others a result of progress unendurable, malls have evolved over decades and became a phenomenon from the point of view, and especially socially. Specialists in the field I want to emphasize that the mall is the modern version of the bazaars, galleries, stock exchanges and markets in times long past. Do not overlook one important element: the department store, which is an invention of French businessmen of the eighteenth century and quickly spread is a phenomenon where millions of people visited Paris at the great exhibitions. On the other hand, psychologists note that by “studying” a mall, we can learn more about us, plus the knowledge that we can improve the aesthetic and psychological level, even at the economic level. Anyway, where else could start what might be called a history of the mall than in America? The first mall appeared in Edina, Minnesota, about seven decades ago, and soon the American company was to enter a happy and long marriage to malls (figuratively and literally – taking into account that many Americans even get married in the mall!). Their number increased to eight in the U.S. in 1946, thousands and thousands – now. According to the National Research Bureau, in late 1992, there were 38,966 U.S. commercial complex, of which 1835 were large regional complex. As they began to include, in addition to shops, offices, theaters, even hotels, malls have become tourist attractions, from the strange to resemble the town centers of yesteryear … Invention and surprise “go to the shopping once every two or three weeks. Of course, going by car you leave the parking lot area. Inside, the atmosphere becomes loose by the restaurant, you flock to the country ¬ “video vault”, young parents take their children to the cinema. The atmosphere is cheerful. People are walking, their shoulders touching, they are in a common area. Residents of the city sophisticated malls are not pleased, but most Americans consider them an integral part of everyday life, like highway distances to reach service, the meal to the minute, as the sale of household items “flea” as arranged in the garage propiu barbecue in the garden. ” Essay phrases belong malls architecture and urbanism professor Witold Rybczynski, author of the book “Home” (1986 – a history of residential architecture and “The Most Beautiful House in the World” (1989 – a description of his own houses , which he designed it and built it himself). “shopping complex is the prerogative of the middle class,” continued Rybczynski. Commercial complex occurred in the early twentieth century, the suburbs surrounding American cities. Immediately arose the so-called concept of “village shops” because history is full of malls inventions. Shopping cart such as self-service stores, which appeared in the ’30s, making it easier for supermarkets life (the main element of the first commercial complex). And inventions, especially the history of shopping centers surprises do not stop there. (To be continued) Nu numai palatele pot avea o istorie. Iată că există „pa¬late” ale vremurilor moderne pe care lumea le vizitează cu aceeaşi frenezie. Pentru unii un mod de viaţă, pentru alţii insuportabil efect al progresului, mall-urile au evoluat de-a lungul deceniilor, devenind un fenomen atât din punct de vedere comercial, cât mai ales social. Specialiştii în domeniu ţin să sublinieze că mall-ul reprezintă versiunea contemporană a bazarelor, galeriilor, burselor şi pieţelor din vremurile demult apuse. Să nu omitem un element important: magazinul universal, care este o invenţie a oamenilor de afaceri francezi ai secolului al XVIII-lea şi care reprezintă un fenomen repede răspândit după ce milioane de oameni vizitaseră Parisul cu ocazia marilor expoziţii. Pe de altă parte, psihologii notează că, prin „studierea” unui mall, putem învăţa multe despre noi, plus că ne putem îmbunătăţi cunoştinţele la nivel estetic şi psihologic, ba chiar la nivel economic. Oricum ar fi, unde în altă parte ar fi putut începe ceea ce am putea numi o istorie a mall-urilor decât în America? Primul mall a apărut în Edina, statul Minnesota, cu aproximativ şapte decenii în urmă, iar în scurt timp societatea americană avea să încheie un fericit şi pe termen lung mariaj cu mall-urile (la figurat şi la propriu – având în vedere că în prezent mulţi americani chiar se căsătoresc în mall!). Numărul lor a crescut în SUA de la opt în 1946, la mii şi mii – în prezent. Conform National Research Bureau, la finele anului 1992, în SUA existau 38.966 de complexe comerciale, dintre care 1.835 erau complexe regionale mari. Pe măsură ce au început să cuprindă, în afară de magazine, birouri, teatre, chiar şi hoteluri, complexele comerciale au devenit atracţii turistice, începând să semene în mod straniu cu centrele oraşelor de odinioară… Invenţii şi surprize „Merg la complexul comercial o dată la două sau la trei săptămâni. Desigur, merg cu automobilul, pe care îl las în spaţiul enorm de parcare. În interior, atmosfera devine lejeră prin zona de restaurant, tine¬rii se înghesuie în «bolta video», părinţii tineri îşi duc copiii la cinematograf. Atmosfera este îmbucurătoare. Oamenii se plimbă, umerii lor se ating, ei se află într-un spaţiu comun. Locuitorii sofisticaţi ai urbei nu sunt încântaţi de complexele comerciale, dar majoritatea americanilor consideră că acestea fac parte integrantă din viaţa cotidiană, la fel ca parcurgerea unor distanţe pe autostradă pentru a ajunge la service, ca preparatele culinare la minut, ca vânzarea unor obiecte casnice în «talciocul» amenajat în garajul propiu şi ca grătarul din grădină”. Frazele-eseu despre mall-uri îi aparţin profesorului de arhitectură şi urbanistului Witold Rybczynski, autor al cărţilor „Home” (1986 – o istorie a arhitecturii locuinţelor şi „The Most Beautiful House in the World” (1989 – o descriere a propriei sale case, pe care a proiectat-o şi a construit-o singur). „Complexul comercial este apanajul clasei de mijloc”, continuă Rybczynski. Complexul comercial a apărut la începutul secolului al XX-lea, în suburbiile din jurul oraşelor americane. Imediat s-a ivit aşa-numitul concept „sate de magazine”, deoarece istoria mall-urilor este plină de invenţii. Cum ar fi căruciorul pentru cumpărături din magazinele cu autoservire, care a apărut în anii ’30, uşurând viaţa supermarket-urilor (elemental principal al primelor complexe comerciale). Şi invenţiile, dar mai ales surprizele istoriei centrelor comerciale nu se opresc aici. (Va urma)

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